Table of Contents
Before 2030, the climate of the world may be warmer than in the past due to the increased use of gasoline-powered cars that emit great amounts of poisonous gases. This poses a serious question on the extent of global warming in coming years (Sperling & Gordon, 2010). Therefore, an alternative mode of transportation, including cars, needs to be embraced to decrease the level of carbon dioxide in the air. The solution for use of gasoline-powered cars is the introduction of electric cars since the latter are environmental-friendly. Electric cars were quite popular before the changes to the combustion of fuel and the increase of mass production of gasoline occurred (Roth, 2011). In the late 20th century, people switched completely from electric cars to hybrid and gasoline-powered ones due to the increase in the mass production of gasoline that become cheaper and readily available. This technical report analyses the components of electric cars and their functionality that make them environmental-friendly. The purpose of this technical report is to examine climatic changes that are attributed to the use of fuel-powered cars and the impact it has on society. This research also explains the advantages of using electric cars in combatting global warming that is already experienced in the world. The best thing the world can do is to reduce the manufacturing and use of gasoline cars, which is not an easy task given that many people will not be willing to dispose of their fuel-powered cars and buy electric ones since some challenges, such as the low number of charging stations, arise when using them.
Components of Electric Cars
Electric cars have two types of batteries. Thus, auxiliary battery plays a crucial role in the provision of electricity to start the car before traction battery is engaged. The latter gives power for a sustained period of time that is used to propel the engine while the car is on move. These batteries are charged at charging stations until they are fully charged in order to sustain the car until another charging session (Guarnieri, 2012). Battery technologies have improved greatly, and they can be of conventional lithium ion, aluminum ion, metal-air, and solid states. Batteries of high power capacity, which ranges around 80-100 rounds on a full charge, have been developed as well (Frydenlund, 2016). Electric cars use a battery as its source of energy that needs to be charged regularly. Therefore, a charge port aids in connecting the car to an external power supply.
Motor controller regulates the operations of electric car and the distribution of its power when the car is on the move. The electric engine needs to drive by the power that is exerted from the battery; thus, this motor controller helps in hacking this power to the pulse that drives the engine (Sanalow, 2009). The existence of more than one motor in modern electric cars aids in the distribution of power between them to preserve energy and to boost torque sleep and torque vectoring. Therefore, the role of motor controller in the functionality of electric cars cannot be underestimated.
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Electric engine plays a vital role in the functionality of electric cars since it acts as its heart. Without it, the car remains an empty box that simply cannot function. Alternating current engine is the most preferred one (Frydenlund, 2016). Alternating motors are cheaper, lighter, and quite efficient as compared to direct current engines. Moreover, electric motors are the most efficient ones when it comes to the combustion of stored energy. Thus, they possess 85% efficiency, while gasoline motors use less than 20% of their fuel energy to drive the vehicle.
The function of the drive system is to take mechanical energy to the traction wheels, which boost the generation of motion. This motion aids the movement of the car and powers each of its wheels. Therefore, drive system contributes greatly to starting the car from the sleep mode into the motion one (Sperling& Gordon, 2010). Drive system is a major component of an electric car, without which the electric car will not function as well. An electric vehicle does not need a conventional transmission, but it only requires internal configurations.
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The function of a cooling system is to maintain and regulate the temperature range of the engine, power electronics, and electric motor. This prevents overheating of this component, which can cause damages to the components if not regulated (Guarnieri, 2012). The auxiliary heating system helps to provide heat inside the car when it is cold, thus balancing the level of heat in it. Therefore, cooling and heating systems work together to ensure that temperature is maintained at preferable range.
Regenerative braking helps prevent the wastage of energy by reusing the one that has been extracted from braked components. When the brake is applied, the electric motor uses reverse mode, which enables the motor to perform the majority of braking and help avoid wasting kinetic energy. Thus, regenerative braking is a mechanism that helps recover energy by means of slowing the vehicle by converting kinetic energy that can be stored and used in the future (Sanalow, 2009). Unlike the conventional braking system, where kinetic energy is converted into heat by friction, which is not useful, the regenerative braking one preserve energy (Roth, 2011). Despite its advantages, this system cannot solely be depended upon since it does not completely bring the car to a halt, and it does not immobilize the stationary vehicle. Finally, it is only applicable to the wheel with motors. Thus, for it to be effective, this system should be used with another braking system.
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Differences between Hybrid, Electric, and Normal Cars
A car is termed ‘hybrid’ when it combines the use of more than one form of energy to achieve propulsion. The major difference between normal (fuel-powered), electric, and hybrid cars is the nature and functionality of their engines (Widmath, Martin, & Kimiabeigi, 2015). Thus, the normal car uses an engine that is powered by the combustion of petrol or diesel, while the electric vehicle uses an engine that is powered by electricity. At the same time, hybrid cars combine both gasoline and electricity to power their engines. Since fuel-powered cars use gasoline that emits carbon dioxide, this leads to greenhouse effect that is contributed by the combustion of fuel with high elements of carbon dioxide (Nykvist & Nilsson, 2015). However, hybrid cars are the best choice since they combine both fuel and electricity as the sources of energy; consequently, they burn little fuel, which results in low carbon dioxide emission (Nykvist & Nilsson, 2015). Therefore, for now, a hybrid car is the best solution to the increasing problem of greenhouse effect that is experienced globally nowadays. Hybrid cars cover larger distance than a regular ones due to the combination of gasoline and electricity. These cars are also more expensive, but they have increased fuel efficiency as compared to regular ones. Therefore, the primary difference between a regular car and electric one is that former uses fuel as its source of energy while the latter uses electricity.
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Advantages of Electric Cars
Electric cars have a smaller environmental impact since they do not emit carbon dioxide that causes greenhouse effect. On the contrary, regular cars produce carbon emission, which makes the environment vulnerable to the effects of global warming (Gerdes, 2012). Electric cars solve this problem since they do not emit any gases, thus becoming the best solution to the problem of greenhouse effect. At the same time, regular repairs and the replacement of parts to enable improved functionality increase the overall cost of fuel-powered cars. On the other hand, it is easy to maintain electric cars since their parts are not damaged easily and therefore, they serve longer and need less frequent replacements (Shahan, 2016). The rechargeable batteries of electric cars can be recycled, which alleviates the problem of their disposal. Finally, the issue of stress, which some people might experience when driving to gas stations and fueling their cars, is solved by electric cars since it is easier to charge their vehicles at charging stations.
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Disadvantages of Electric Cars
Sometimes, charging stations are located too far from where people live, which creates inconveniences when it is necessary to charge the batteries of electric cars. Therefore, drivers might be forced to travel for long distances to find charging stations. Moreover, charging a battery takes much time for drivers, which might even cause some people to be late for work (Nykvist & Nilsson, 2015). In addition, charging stations are still not widespread, which causes delays so people waste much time while waiting for others to finish charging their vehicles. These challenges make electric cars unpopular, thus leading to the increased use of fuel-powered vehicles. Therefore, the availability of charging stations is one of the major factors that customers consider when making a decision to buy an electric car.
At the same time, despite the efficiency and the effectiveness of electric batteries, the cost of such cars is rather high, so many people cannot afford them. Most people will prefer using fuel-powered cars to avoid buying expensive batteries that need to be replaced when they are damaged, which makes them even more expensive (Gerdes, 2012). The long-lasting lithium-ion batteries are quite expensive. In addition, these batteries are rather heavy, thus causing a significant pressure on batteries and draining them quickly. Thus, the high cost of electric cars is a major cause why many people still opt to buy fuel-powered vehicles that harm the environment instead of eco-friendly ones.
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The Future Of Electric Cars
There has been increased pressure from environmentalist on the reduction of toxic gases, especially from fuel-powered cars, to reduce greenhouse effect since it causes global warming. This pressure will definitely force people to choose electric cars since they do not harm the environment much. The world will be forced to increase the use of electric vehicles as a measure to reduce the extent of gas emission and air pollution (Widmath et al., 2015). Electric cars have attractive features that will make them popular in coming years. Despite the weaknesses of electric cars, their environmental advantage will make them a preferable type of vehicles in the future. When electric cars’ deficiency is measured against environmental strength, the strength overrules the deficiency. Therefore, electric cars have higher chances of being embraced in the future.
The advantages of electric cars cannot be ignored in the times when greenhouse effect and environment protection are the most discussed topics. Many eyes are focused on the alternative type of cars to replace those that use fuel as their source of energy. The increase use of electric cars will help greatly in fighting the high level of emission of harmful substances. Therefore, the government should encourage the use of electric cars by reducing tax on them, to reduce the use and manufacturing of gasoline-powered cars since they produce toxic gases that are harmful to people’s health. Significant amounts of money are used to prevent and cure diseases that emanate from increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the Earth. This trend clearly shows that the economy should prepare for depression in the future if no measures are taken towards decreasing the use of fuel cars and embracing electric ones. The latter seem to be the best solution in the current situation due to their environmentally-friendly nature. The use of electric cars will save the world from the high cost of treating airborne diseases that will reduce eventually. Finally, electric vehicles have much more advantages than disadvantages. From a narrow perspective, electric cars seem to have an added cost to the user due to the high cost of the electric battery and an insufficient number of charging stations. However, electric cars are essential for the reduction of greenhouse effect in the future.