- What is the general food timeline for a child in the first two years?
In the first two years of growth, children consume soft food other than breast milk and infant formula. For example, in the period from their birth to three months, babies are fed on breast milk or infant formula. Between four and six months, they begin eating solid food, but remain dependent on calories, protein, vitamins and minerals they receive from breast milk or infant formula. At eight months, the child can be fed on mashed fruits and vegetables (Rathus, 2013). At ten months, the baby starts self-feeding on finger foods such as teething biscuits. By the end of the first year, the one can feed on soft table food. Furthermore, by the second year, the baby begins eating firm, solid food.
- Briefly describe what the parts of the neuron do.
Neurons are nerve cells that transmit messages to the brain. They are divided into four main parts. These elements include the myelin sheath, axon, dendrites, and neurotransmitters. The axon is a thin and long segment within the neuron that transmits impulses to other neurons through the axon terminal. Dendrites are short fibers that receive income messages from neurons to other cells in the body. Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that are used to enhance the effective transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another (Rathus, 2013). The myelin sheath is a white fatty substance used to cover and insulate neurons to ensure the rapid transmission of neural impulses within the body.
- How is it possible to assess cognitive development in children who are too young to talk (infants)?
It is possible to assess the cognitive development of a child who is too young to talk, especially infants mainly through their mastery ability that allows them to grasp adequately all that they have been taught or exposed to. Further, the capacity of infants to successfully copy tasks presented to them by adults helps to increase the level of their cognitive development. Given this, it can be clearly noted that the cognitive development assessment in a child who is too young to talk only becomes possible during infancy when parents or caregivers possess adequate intellectual tools, since this helps to enhance their participation in the social environment (Rathus, 2013). Through this, relatives and adults as a whole can develop a clear understanding and interpretation of child’s general growth and development.
- Describe the sequence of language development in children during the first 2 years of life.
During the first twelve weeks, the infant projects no reaction when picked up. By 16 weeks, the child can identify and respond to human sounds. During the twentieth week, the baby begins to coo. At six months, the infant starts babbling single syllables. At eight months, children develop a distinct pattern of intonation that signals emphasis and emotions since they continuously repeat all that they have heard (Rathus, 2013). By the end of the first year, infants can replicate an identical sound sequence that they have consistently heard, and at the age of two years, they can demonstrate little efforts of communicating their desired information. At this age, children can develop a repertoire from tree to fifty words.
- What is the difference between a securely attached infant and an insecurely attached infant?
Securely attached infants refer to young children who project an emotional trauma and a sense of rebellion when separated from their mothers and find comfort upon their reunion. These children do not find a sense of emotional peace during the absence of their parents, thereby seeking the nearness of a mother figure to provide them with the sense of belonging and readily soothe away their pain (Rathus, 2013). On the other hand, insecurely attached infants are those that demonstrate limited emotional attachment with their parents. In other words, children do not depict any form of emotional distress when separated from their mothers. They can adequately play peacefully with those around them without the need to reunite with their parents.
- Explain the concept “goodness of fit”. Be sure to describe temperament.
The goodness of fit refers to an environment that properly accommodates the general behaviors of parents and children in a manner that will help enhance their relationships. Further, the concept of “goodness of fit” helps to build and develop full realization among parents of the importance of establishing a balanced and friendly attitude when relating to their children. It fosters a flexible environment that provides parents with an opportunity to learn adequately and understand behavioral changes in their children in a bid to improve and provide them with a clear and positive direction in life (Rathus, 2013). Similarly, the “goodness of fit” is used to foster the sense of responsibility for both parents and their children.
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- Discuss the major causes of childhood death in the United States as compared to developing countries.
As opposed to developing countries, accidents are the leading causes of death among young children in the United States. These cases range from a motor vehicle accident and drowning to fires. According to research, the first occur among infants or younger children due to the lack of adequate preventive measures in using child safety seats, which include fastening belts and installing smoke detectors. Drowning accidents occur in younger children due to the lack of proper supervision from their parents (Rathus, 2013). Similarly, they are mainly attributed to stress or the disorganization of the family, which distracts parents from children. On the other hand, fire accidents cause the death of children primarily due to poor housing conditions.
- Briefly describe the nutritional needs of the preschool-aged child.
At the preschool age, children’s nutritional needs become drawn to salt and sugar. It is mainly because their appetite is consistently being reduced and becomes erratic, fostering their slow growth and development. Further, it is important to note that at this stage, children need fewer calories in the body due to slow growth and development they experience (Rathus, 2013). They also begin to be choosy with their food intake since they can develop a strong preference for particular products. Similarly, at this stage, preschool-aged children begin consuming less food during one meal and more during another meal.
- Describe the cognitive abilities and limitations of preoperational children. Be sure to use the correct vocabulary.
During the preoperational stage, child’s cognitive development can last from two to seven years. At this time, a child can develop a symbolic thought by associating individual objects and relationships connected with them. It is evident when they are playing such symbolic games as “Let’s pretend.” It means that children can demonstrate the art and skills of creativity. Similarly, during this stage, they can identify and describe different activities, people and objects in their lives through the art of scribbling and drawing pictures (Rathus, 2013). However, during this period, children become selfish and focus on their various needs and demands only.
- What are some common language errors that children make in early childhood?
During the early development stage of children, they make some different language errors such developing a vocabulary bias by assuming the general meaning of new words they have learned. Because of this, during this period, they begin confusing the names of words and objects. Another key error is that although kids expect the sense of language bias, they can acquire new words. One more error demonstrated during the early development stage of a child is a contrast assumption (Rathus, 2013). It is when children use different words they have to learn to refer bluntly to objects around them without having a clear meaning or understanding.
- Describe the differences between authoritative and authoritarian parenting. Including some of what is known about the outcomes of each parenting style.
Authoritative parenting relates to a parenting technique, whereby parents project a strong desire to control the general behavior and activities of their children in a way that makes the latter have the sense of love and support from them (Rathus, 2013). Through this, it can be noted that this parenting technique has helped motivate children to improve their performance at school, as well as achieve their general goals and objectives. On the other hand, authoritarian parenting is a child-rearing style, whereby parents demand submission and obedience from their children in a hostile manner. This factor largely contributes to an increased aggression level between parents and children.
- Describe Mildred Parten’s patterns of play. What role does play have in a child’s life?
The Mildred Parten’s pattern of play is mainly divided into six distinct categories. These types include unoccupied play, in which children engage in random movements without any particular goal, a solitary game where kids play independently with toys, and onlooker play whereby they only observe and make suggestions on how their peers play. At parallel play, children play with similar toys but do not directly interact with their peers. At associative play, they become interactive and begin to share their toys with others, while in case of cooperative play, children begin to interact with others with the principal aim of achieving a similar goal. Play is a critical concept in the life of a child since it helps to ensure his or her adequate social and emotional development (Rathus, 2013).