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Nervous Systems

Nervous Systems

Human brain is an important part of the nervous system, and it is responsible for different actions of organism. Different parts of the brain control different functions of the organism. In this paper, the functions of different parts of the brain engaged in sitting, moving body and breathing will be studied.

Sitting upright and breathing is an ability provided by the cerebellum. The cerebellum is responsible for movement and balance, and it allows me to sit straight. The cerebellum receives sensory information related to the positions of the joints and the length of the muscles. Cerebellum also controls different motor commands that are given by the cerebrum. It analyses and combines this information as it is responsible for coordination and checking for any errors when motor and perceptual functions are performed. When I sit upright, my cerebrum also performs important functions. The cerebrum controls skeletal muscle contraction. Cerebrum is divided into right and left cerebral hemispheres. The cerebral cortex consists of right and left sides. The left side of cerebral cortex gets information from the right side of the body, and controls its movement. Conversely, the right side of cerebral cortex gets informaion from the left side of the body, and controls its movements. Therefore, in order to sit straight, my body requires the activity of both right and left sides of the cerebral cortex (Reece et al., p. 1069).

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When I sit, my diencephalon is also functioning. Its part, the thalamus, is active. It consists of two masses; each of them is about the size and shape of a walnut. My thalamus acts as the main input center for sensory information that goes to the cerebrum. The information that comes from all the senses is sorted and sent to the appropriate cerebral centers. Therefore, my cerebrum gets information from thalamus to enable sitting. I breathe due to the activities of brainstem. Its part, the medulla, is responsible for the control of several automatic, homeostatic functions, including breathing. The pons is also active when I breathe. It regulates the breathing centers in the medulla (Reece et al., p. 1069). Therefore, I breathe due to the functioning of brainstem, in particular, medulla and pons. This function is automatic due to the brain activity, and I can breathe even without thinking about it.

When I hold my breath and lean way over my seat, different parts of my brain are working. The cerebrum is ressponsible for movements as it controls skeletal muscle contraction. As it was mentioned above, the left side of cerebral cortex gets information from the right side of the body, and controls its movement, and vice versa. When I lean, both parts of the body move. Therefore, both sides of the cerebral cortex work. The cerebellum is responsible for my coordination when I lean. It allows me to be stable and not to fall down when I lean. When I decide to hold my breath, my cerebrum works and coordinates particular muscles. However, I cannot hold my breath indefinitely. When the brain receives less oxygen, the brainstem activates automatic and homeostatic function of breathing again. It prevents the organism from organs damage and dying (Reece et al., p. 1069).

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In conclusion, simple actions like sitting, leaning, breathing and holding breath require the functioning of several parts of the brain. The cerebellum helps to sit or lean firmly, to coordinate movements and to avoid errors while moving. Both parts of the cerebral cortex receive information from both parts of the body and coordinate movements. The part of brainstem, the medulla, is responsible for the control of automatic, homeostatic function of breathing.

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